Pathology : study on disease
Revision on congenital anomalies
Basically, this topic is about the genetic disorder or structural defects that are present in birth.
Several terms are used to describe congenital abnormalities. (Some of these are also used to describe noncongenital conditions, and more than one term may apply in an individual condition.)
A congenital physical anomaly is an abnormality of the structure of a body part. An anomaly may or may not be perceived as a problem condition. Many, if not most, people have one or more minor physical anomalies if examined carefully. Examples of minor anomalies can include curvature of the 5th finger , a third nipple, tiny indentations of the skin near the ears (preauricular pits), shortness of the 4th metacarpal bones, or dimples over the lower spine. Some minor anomalies may be clues to more significant internal abnormalities.
Birth defect is a widely-used term for a congenital malformation, i.e. a congenital, physical anomaly which is recognizable at birth, and which is significant enough to be considered a problem. According to the CDC, most birth defects are believed to be caused by a complex mix of factors including genetics, environment, and behaviors, though many birth defects have no known cause.
A congenital malformation is a congenital physical anomaly that is deleterious, i.e. a structural defect perceived as a problem. A typical combination of malformations affecting more than one body part is referred to as a malformation syndrome
Some conditions are due to abnormal tissue development:
- A malformation is associated with a disorder of tissue development. Malformations often occur in the first trimester.
- A dysplasia is a disorder at the organ level that is due to problems with tissue development.
It is also possible for conditions to arise after tissue is formed:
- A deformation is a condition arising from mechanical stress to normal tissue.
- Deformations often occur in the second or third semester, and can be due to oligohydramnios.
- A disruption involves breakdown of normal tissues.
The causes of anomalies :
1) genetic causes
- chromosomal aberrations
- single-gene mutations
2) environmental causes
- drug and other chemical
- maternal diabetes
Additional note :
Cell division errors can be due to a lack of nutrients or availability of atomic building blocks, or the presence of toxin that impede normal growth. Division errors which occur very early in the development of a multicellular organism can result in large scale structural and functional differences in the organism's final shape. For example it is now understood that a lack of folic acid in the diet of a mother can cause cellular neural tube deformities that result in spina bifida
External physical shocks or constrainment due to growth in a restricted space, may result in unintended deformation or separation of cellular structures resulting in an abnormal final shape or damaged structures unable to function as expected.For multicellular organisms that develop in a womb, the physical interference or presence of other similarly developing organisms such as twins can result in the two cellular masses being integrated into a larger whole, with the combined cells attempting to continue to develop in a matter that satisfies the intended growth patterns of both cell masses. The two cellular masses can compete with each other, and may either duplicate or merge various structures. This results in conditions such as conjoined twins, and the resulting merged organism may die at birth when it must leave the life-sustaining environment of the womb and must attempt to sustain its biological processes independently
Actually, banyak lagi nak cover dalam chapter ni, tapi x larat dah nak tulis. Cuma, apabila start study topic ni dan melihat2 gambar yang berkaitan dengan penyakit ni, hati rasa sangat sayu melihat bayi-bayi ini dalam kesakitan. Menggugat emosi dan perasaan saya sebagai seorang wanita, bakal isteri dan bakal ibu..meruntum hati dan jiwa. Sesungguhnya saya berazam untuk menjaga sebaiknya bakal zuriat saya sedari awal pregnancy lagi. Nasihat untuk sahabat-sahabat dan bakal ibu di luar sana..
Walau apapun, Allah sebaik-baik perancang!
~bersyukurlah kerana dirimu dilahirkn sempurna
macamna cara kita nak bersyukur? bertanyalah pada iman...